Hand tools and fabrication machines
For our IOT project we created a system of two photons that can be used to notify coaches and training staff when a football player has received a hit that places him at risk of concussion. “Concussion is an acceleration/deceleration injury resulting from biomechanical forces transmitted to the cerebral tissues from impacts to the head or torso.” One of the photons was used to detect the g-force felt by a player upon impact. This was done using a 200g ADXL377 accelerometer. A code was developed that calculated and displayed the resultant magnitude of g-force. The code pulled two variables with a small delay between each in effort to capture the peak of the instantaneous impact acceleration. A study conducted by EJ Pellman in 2004 determined that an athlete is placed at a 75% risk of injury when subjected to a 98g acceleration. Therefore, the other photon was used to turn on an LED when the 98g threshold was reached.
To determine a way in which to constantly apply approximately 98g’s of acceleration, an experiment was conducted. In this experiment, a pendulum was set up using nylon rope and a 5lb kettle ball. This kettle ball was placed directly in center with the helmet. The accelerometer was placed inside of the helmet on the side of the helmet receiving impact. The kettle ball was released from angles of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees. Data was collected for 10 test runs. It was determined that a 98g acceleration could be achieved at a release angle of approximately 30 degrees or higher. A plot of the ten test runs can be seen below in figure 1.
Figure 1: Acceleration Achieved at Different Pendulum Release Angles
The peak values of Figure 1 can be seen below in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Peak Acceleration Achieved at Different Release Angles
Sources: Broglio, Steven P., et al. “The Biomechanical Properties of Concussions in High School Football.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2010, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943536/.